“I understand that destroybellyfat.com and Tammy Stephens are not medical doctors and are not here for medical diagnostic or treatment procedures. The information given on this website is for educational purposes only on the subject of weight loss and health matters. The information given on this website is only intended to help improve your life  and does not involve the diagnosing, treatment, or prescribing of remedies for the treatment of diseases. If you choose to follow any advice on this website, you choose to follow the information received on your own behalf based on your own beliefs. By using this website, you assume total responsibility and liability for your own actions.”
Excess visceral fat is possibly more harmful because of its proximity to the portal vein, which carries blood from the intestinal area to the liver. Substances released by visceral fat, including free fatty acids, enter the portal vein and travel to the liver. In the liver, they help produce blood lipids, leading to an increase in metabolic disturbances and risk factors.4
Eat a healthy diet. Emphasize plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Choose lean sources of protein such as fish and low-fat dairy products. Limit saturated fat, found in meat and high-fat dairy products, such as cheese and butter. Also limit processed meats. Choose moderate amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats — found in fish, nuts and certain vegetable oils — instead.

Here we go! This one is a special elixir that cures the mind and body alike. The blueberries naturally expel unwanted toxins in droves, and they release ample B vitamins into the system, which promotes energetic exercise alongside active engagement. The lavender is also particularly soothing for the brain. In terms of detox water recipes, it is hard to find another brew that delivers such stamina and clarity. When selecting lavender leaves, it is wise to select mature plants with robust petals. The opposite is true for berries. With smaller varieties, more nutrients can be jam-packed into the detox blend.
Research published in the Journal of Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases concluded that following the Mediterranean diet could help to mitigate the harmful effects of belly fat on your heart. Better yet, it boosts the number of healthy bacteria in your gut – a study published in the journal Frontiers in Nutrition saw levels rise by up to seven per cent, compared with a western diet.
Well detox is supposed to cleanse your body internally and after a week or two the toxins build up again so it’s essential to detox again but when you’re tryna lose weight.. You need to do it more frequently so it can remove the toxic fat. Which is why it’s important to be consistent. If you leave 2-3 days in between its fine but the weight loss process will be slower unfortunately:)

Posture can make it seem as though you have a problem with lower belly fat. In fact, your belly bulge may be due to your pelvis being tilted too far forward and downward, causing your lower back to over arch  and pushing out the lower part of your belly. So it  makes your belly look bigger than it really is, and it also makes you shorter. Even if you’re super lean and have very little belly fat, if you have an excessive anterior pelvic tilt, your lower abdomen will protrude. There are stretches that for an excessive anterior pelvic tilt as this video demonstrates. However, if you suspect this may be a problem, your best course of action is to see a health professional for diagnosis and treatment.
Aloe is a sensational digestive aid, and its incorporation into DIY detox water is revolutionary for dieters everywhere. A household plant can be a perfect specimen for harvesting healing gel. The ooze can be gently extracted with a knife tip before being blended into lemon juice. This serenely sour liquid dilutes the aloes thickness for easy absorption into the blood stream. Once digested, aloe promotes relief from fatigue by boosting energy production from the inside. Please note that pregnant women are cautioned against consuming aloe ingredients, but everyone else can raise a toast to purification with this serenely refreshing selection.
New Delhi: If you’re trying to shed a few extra kilos that you have gained, replacing those sugary beverages and sodas with cucumber water can help you cut some calories and get rid of your belly fat. Also known as cucumber detox water or cucumber infused water, this healthy refreshing drink has been around for a very long time years before the infused water craze started. It is believed that the popular health drink can help remove toxins from the body and help with weight loss.
The product was bought by the sharks and in limited release testing, the results have been unbelievable. "The new keto diet is posed to revolutionize the diet industry." shark Lori Greiner. "I wanted the product for myself, I knew it would sell huge on HSN. But I'm happy that we are sharing it. I want to stay true to the guys mission to allow everyone access to it." 

Prioritise lean protein like beef, turkey, eggs, fish, chicken, and tofu. In a study published in the International Journal of Obesity, participants were either assigned a 12 per cent or 25 per cent protein diet. While the first group lost 11 pounds on average, the high-protein participants shedded around 20 pounds and ditched twice as much belly fat as the low-protein subjects.

The way this detox works in different for everyone because someone might have a lot of toxin build up in their body and some might have very little! I don’t want to scare you or anything but be patient with it because you might have some toxin build up and it will just take a little longer than normal to get rid of it. So just be consistent, drink up everyday and start with some light exercise to speed up the process. Go out for a walk, you can do some jump ropes or dance a little haha 🙂
A very rich dietary food, beans are packed full of nutrients, fiber, and protein. The protein and fiber are particularly good at helping reduce hunger after eating and decrease cravings that lead to excessive snacking. By helping reduce overall calorie intake, beans help reduce lower belly fat. Science Daily backs up these statements by reporting that beans “increased the feeling of fullness by 31 per cent, which may indeed result in less food intake.” Further, they state that “including [beans] in your diet may help you lose weight, and we think more importantly, prevent you from gaining it back after you lose it.” (6) Just be careful how you prepare and what you serve your beans with. If you are used to serving green beans with butter, cut the butter out. Avoid baked beans since they are cooked with large amounts of sugar, preservatives, and not good fats. Instead, try beans steamed or boiled and seasoned with herbs and spices.
When you decide to “go on a diet,” you’re making the conscious decision that this is a temporary choice. You’re going to go on it, but that means that you’re going to one day—probably sooner than you expect—go off it. That’s the concept of weight cycling (also known as yo-yo dieting), and it’s extremely unhealthy. A 2014 study in the journal Diabetes Care found that a pattern of weight cycling—losing at least five pounds and then gaining it back within two years—resulted in as much as a 33 percent higher risk of diabetes and higher blood pressure.

If you want a drink that mimics the fancy beverages served in health spas, try this homemade detox water. This is one of the best-rounded brews ever devised by human minds. The lemon leads to a cleaned out digestive system, and cucumbers keep your figure slim by eliminating unnecessary water storage. Strawberries combine with the other fruits to provide the most prominent edge of sweetness, which is accompanied by the brisk coolness of mint. This digestive aid merges efforts with the basil to create a stable stomach for any lass. Get ready to feel like you just ordered room service!

So much of weight loss is just calorie restriction…great food suggestions! I’ve noticed that when I go to the gym I can burn a certain amount of calories per hour — but it’s so much easier to just skip those calories at a meal. Not that exercise isn’t important, I just know that weight loss itself is so much more about diet than exercise. The sculpting part is more about exercise though:) Great tips. I often ignore my core — no more!


Visceral fat is sometimes also call intra-abdominal fat. This is because visceral fat is found between your organs in the midsection. The activity level of the cells of visceral fat is what experts like Tim Church, the medical director of The Cooper Institute in Dallas, believe cause your body to be at a higher risk for heart disease and diabetes. And according to Anne McTiernan, lead researcher of a study at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle, visceral fat is likely to be the fat you will lose first through diet and exercise. McTiernan recommends aiming for 30 to 45 minutes of brisk walking five days per week, but suspects that 60 minutes of physical activity would be more beneficial in reducing belly fat.
Every tea has its own special weight-loss powers, but if your boat is sinking and you can only grab one package of tea before swimming to the deserted island, make it green tea. Green tea—a core component of The 7-Day Flat-Belly Tea Cleanse—is the bandit that picks the lock on your fat cells and drains them away, even when we're not making the smartest dietary choices. Chinese researchers found that green tea significantly lowers triglyceride concentrations (potentially dangerous fat found in the blood) and belly fat in subjects who eat fatty diets.

You have surely heard of (or experienced for yourself) the wonderful benefits of aloe. Did you know that you can add it to your water? When you take aloe internally, it can help with circulation and digestion and increase your energy and eliminate fatigue. Making aloe infused detox water is easy. You need to split the leaf down the center and remove the gel. Mix the gel with some water and lemon in the blender and process for about a minute. You will need about a cup of water, 2 tablespoons of lemon juice and about 2 tablespoons of aloe gel.
Lower belly fat consists of two kinds of fat: visceral fat and subcutaneous fat. Visceral fat lies deep inside your abdomen, packed around the internal organs. It pushes out on the subcutaneous fat, which is just under the skin around your torso, hips, thighs and arms. Visceral fat is more dangerous, secreting hormones and compounds that raise your risk of disease, including some cancers, type 2 diabetes and heart disease. As visceral fat makes your midsection expand outward, the subcutaneous fat there can sometimes droop from the weight into the lower region of your belly.
Visceral fat is sometimes also call intra-abdominal fat. This is because visceral fat is found between your organs in the midsection. The activity level of the cells of visceral fat is what experts like Tim Church, the medical director of The Cooper Institute in Dallas, believe cause your body to be at a higher risk for heart disease and diabetes. And according to Anne McTiernan, lead researcher of a study at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle, visceral fat is likely to be the fat you will lose first through diet and exercise. McTiernan recommends aiming for 30 to 45 minutes of brisk walking five days per week, but suspects that 60 minutes of physical activity would be more beneficial in reducing belly fat.
I’m not “cleansing” any more but this book has changed the way I feel and look. I’m still down in weight (14 pounds now after 21 days), I’ve lost 3 inches off my tummy, and most important of all, I feel great! I’m more energetic and I feel much less stressed than I have in years. Even though this book is marketed as a 7-day plan, it’s really a lifestyle change.
Normally, in healthy adults, blood sugar levels rise in the morning, but in people with liver belly, blood glucose is lower in the morning, irritability is higher and hunger doesn’t disappear after eating. This happens because bile isn’t released properly and food isn’t broken down as it should, so these people feel hungry after eating and crave for sugars, as a result of their low energy levels.
Chang: To be honest, I really didn't. But I knew there had to be a better weight loss answer. So I started talking to my patients. I wanted to find out what changes they were realistically willing to make and how much they were realistically willing to do to lose weight. What I found out? People need weight loss to fit into their lives. They still have jobs and kids and house cleaning and groceries. They don't have time for complicated diets and excessive workout plans.
I've had every tea that is listed in this book and never noticed any of the results that are claimed. Hell, I even went pretty deep into Puer tea and bought a few hundred dollars of the stuff, then spent months drinking it and noticed nothing at all by way of results. Over a year ago I came across information that explained that the difference between people who get results from drinking tea, whether green tea or white tea, oolong, or puer tea, is that those who got results were drinking between 4 - 5 cups a day, while those who didn't get results were only drinking 1 or 2 cups a day. So, I started making a habit of drinking 4 - 5 cups a day. I even started making tea and keeping it in 1 liter bottles in my refrigerator, to make it easy to drink iced tea whenever I wanted. After nearly a year now of drinking 4 - 5 cups a day of green, white, oolong, puer, and other teas, I do not believe drinking any of these teas aided in any weight I've lost at all, as there have been periods of a week here and there where I've not drank any tea, and when I added it back in, I didn't notice any additional weight being lost at all. So, it may simply be a matter of individual physiology, but for me, whether I drink tea or not there is no noticeable difference, no noticeable increase in the amount of weight which is lost. The book simply makes it sound like every tea is going to produce some kind of magical effect, and that's what bothers me the most. While tea may be a useful addition to a weight loss program, from my experience, it certainly is not a weight loss miracle the way it's made out to b by this author.
When it comes to getting rid of love handles, there is no substitute for quality cardio workouts, healthy diet, and commitment. You need all three components to be successful. Intense exercise and a poor diet will not help you reduce lower belly fat because you will constantly be taking back in the calories you are burning. And though you may have success with cleaning your diet with minimal or no exercise, you will get faster results if combined with exercise. And finally, if you don’t commit to stick with your lifestyle changes in the long-term, losing your lower body fat and love handles will not work.

Longer form: I found this to be an interesting read and I would certainly consider drinking tea in the amount outlined in this book to see how it affects me. I drink tea on a semi-regular basis and haven't drunk calories (beyond the occasional beer or glass of wine) in years, so I don't know if my results would be profound, but they might be. I would like to see if drinking five cups per day does indeed help ...more
Okay, so you won’t be dining at Waffle House this week. To make the cleanse work for you, you’ll need to make your own dinners for the next seven days, or special order off the menu of your favorite restaurant. Cleanse Dinners consist of protein and vegetables, and healthy fats, but no grains or fruits. A little harsh, but again, it’s only temporary. Metabolism decreases up to 35% during sleep, so any extra carbs in your system at bedtime are more likely to get stored as fat. Grains and fruit are the main carb sources in our diets, so I’m stripping them out at dinnertime for the next seven days.

The lemon and cayenne pepper detox water works by lowering your calorie intake. As lemons are rich in vitamin C, it helps in burning fat effectively [28] . Cayenne pepper contains a compound called capsaicin which is known to speed up metabolism and lower your appetite. A study shows that people who had cayenne pepper with every meal had a feeling of satiety and fewer cravings [29] .

Bloating is directly attributed to water retention, which is something that cucumbers are known to prevent. Water rushes out of the system when cucumbers are consumed consistently. They are especially good for handling weight gain due to a menstrual cycle. Cholesterol is combated by oranges, which also assist the immune systems functions. The other citrus fruits in this blend emphasize a deep intestinal cleansing. Meanwhile, the mint fosters fast nutrient absorption and energy conversion. In general, it also quickens and eases digestion, especially for those who have ulcers or hernias. This recipe focuses on functionality over flavor, but it still has a decent taste.
The partners, who are responsible for the all new KetoFuel took shark tank by storm. In the most watched episode in the history of Shark Tank, That's It! Dr. Ron Change and Partner Financial Analyst Michael Schrader used their created the product based on the scientific studies about the keto diet. "We knew putting the body in a state of ketosis worked. We wanted to find a way to put the body in that state, without the stringent diet." Keto salts were born.

The partners, who are responsible for the all new KetoFuel took shark tank by storm. In the most watched episode in the history of Shark Tank, That's It! Dr. Ron Change and Partner Financial Analyst Michael Schrader used their created the product based on the scientific studies about the keto diet. "We knew putting the body in a state of ketosis worked. We wanted to find a way to put the body in that state, without the stringent diet." Keto salts were born.


In Conclusion, we were a little doubtful here at Ok!, but you need to try the effects of this diet for yourself; the results are real. After conducting our own personal study we are pleased to see that people are really finding success with it, myself included. And you have nothing to lose. To order your limited time discounted bottles, follow the links I have provided and know that you are getting quality products that work; no strings attached!
Great news, right? We should all endlessly attack the ab rollers to shrink our stomachs? Well not so fast. The amount of fat loss recorded by our friends in Denmark was tiny to the point of being insignificant. For this reason you'd be better off listening to the guys over at Laval University in Canada who set out to monitor the, "Effect of intensity of physical activity on body fatness and fat distribution."
Prioritise lean protein like beef, turkey, eggs, fish, chicken, and tofu. In a study published in the International Journal of Obesity, participants were either assigned a 12 per cent or 25 per cent protein diet. While the first group lost 11 pounds on average, the high-protein participants shedded around 20 pounds and ditched twice as much belly fat as the low-protein subjects.
Kale is high in fiber, phytochemicals, and protein. It helps reduce cholesterol and prevents breast, ovarian, colon, bladder, and prostate cancers. Due to the presence of kaempferol and quercetin, kale is a superb antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. It has also been found to help in the reduction of body fat and the maintenance of good cardiovascular health (18).

Detox water is the latest diet craze to take off in recent years, and it looks like more than just a mere fad. This approach to losing weight is miraculous for a variety of reasons. A potent taste is often all it takes to make some deviate from their dietary goals. This unfortunate truth has caused many girls to relapse in the middle of a working health regimen, but it no longer has to impede their progress towards a trim physique. With the advent of detoxification water, it is possible to enjoy delicious treats without sacrificing your figure. Succumbing to the desire for sweets no longer spells failure for a weight loss program. Because these drinks are so tasty, there is nothing to lose from enjoying them frequently.
Apples are a great inclusion to any detoxification methodology. This is because they linger longer than most fruits, which makes people feel fuller than usual. The end result is an unnoticeably suppressed appetite. Likewise, cinnamon speeds the metabolism to new levels of efficiency by providing extra heat for burning more calories. With fiery spicy sensations and profoundly transformative antioxidants, girls around the globe are pledging allegiance to their newly cultivated physiques. With the best detox water, skinniness happens on its own. As you can see, weight loss is hardly even a real pursuit when the drinks taste this unbelievably good.

Homemade detox cleanse is one of the best way for detoxification of your internal body organs. In this process , everyone need to improve their daily diet and also need to drinking lots of water on daily basis. There are many ways to detox or cleansing like by drinking many types of juices and green tea. These homemade diet are best as they rapidly convert fats into energy and helps into weight loss efforts. Total cleanse detox diet is a health organization which provides all information regarding detoxification and body cleansing. Just visit www.totalcleansedetoxdiet.com to know more about it.
This heavenly brew is sweeter than soda, but it is also much healthier. The pineapple is a dense source of digestive enzymes. They really know how to make a girls stomach happy. The fruit, which is related to most berries, also contains a diverse assortment of beneficial vitamins. Meanwhile, the watermelon keeps the water watery by diluting the gelatinousness of other ingredients. Muddled rosemary finalizes this rare potion. This herbal infusion is great for easing pains in the lower belly, and it also helps wake up drowsy individuals. This recipe is shockingly irresistible, and every cup is hard to put down.
Sometimes, taking charge feels good. Reunions come along from time to time. So do beach getaways, job interviews, big dates, and other “holy cow, I’d better get it in gear” moments. Taking control of our fitness and health at important junctures in life gives us a sense of accomplishment. You’ll be able to revisit this cleanse whenever a big event looms. Turbocharged results are within your grasp. What I love about this cleanse is that it doesn’t require truly dramatic sacrifice. The only serious change you’ll need to make, besides giving up mindless snacking, is in your morning routine.
A lot of anxiety can be directly traced to one’s diet, but all of these mental troubles can be alleviated by one cup of fancy pineapple detox water. There is a lot of natural sweetness, which creates tons of energy alongside the boosts instilled by basil. Vitamin C enters the game to keep everything functioning normally. It is also accompanied by plenty of digestive enzymes. The strawberries also provide a bunch of generous compounds including iron, folic acid and vitamins A, C, E and K. It is time to pour meditation into a cup, and watch the weight simply drift away over time.
DISCLAIMER: All information, data, and material contained, presented, or provided on 54health.com is for educational purposes only. It is not to be construed or intended as providing medical or legal advice. Decisions you make about your family’s healthcare are important and should be made in consultation with a competent medical professional. We are not physicians and do not claim to be.
The male belly is a strange phenomenon. It comes in all shapes and sizes and it's become the focal point of the fitness industry (love handles, double chins and man boobs all trailing close behind). But what do you do if you're not happy with yours? Putting any six-pack-based goals aside for a moment, here's how to trim your tyre before you start working on your abs.

Although My partner and i had been in the solution to do the job, there seemed to be intense realization that one of the best solution to disguise the tummy body fat is always to train the stomach muscles daily. Certainly the future remedy is to carry out total entire body workouts although the design with this post will probably be to the short-term phrase if you are nonetheless going through issues looking to disguise the belly beneath the garments. crosswrods solutions
These are just three of the reasons people tend to suffer weight gain and health crises when they're under pressure. In fact, it was shortly after the death of my father that my mom, a former nurse in Korea, suffered a dramatic increase in her diabetes symptoms—a health emergency that sent me in search of traditional Eastern remedies. What I learned in my research, and collected in my new book, The 7-Day Flat Belly Tea Cleanse, in which test panelists lost up to 10 pounds in just one week, was that different teas help our bodies manage stress in different ways—and that can make all the difference in our weight and our health.
While carrots themselves are highly nutritious, it is claimed that juicing makes the vegetable juice more nutrient-dense, helping you keep nourished while you’re on the go - compared to raw carrots. What’s even more, carrot juice is very low in calories and quite filling due to high fibre content. Hence, carrot juice is an excellent substitute for sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages when trying to drop the pounds or get rid of that unhealthy belly fat faster. Read - Rice diet plan for weight loss: Does eating Basmati rice help you lose belly fat?
Apple Cider Vinegar is a wonderful supplement for weight loss. Some research suggests that apple cider vinegar increase our metabolism, which helps us burn more calories. ACV when mixed with cold water and honey, this vinegar becomes a fat burner drink. It helps weight loss, improves digestion and flushes out toxins from the body which increases weight. This suppresses hunger and controls the intake of food. You can have this fat burner drink twice daily to burn belly fat!

High in fibre, consuming just a cup of carrot juice can promote healthy digestion and increase satiety on relatively fewer calories. The juice can also help regulate blood sugar levels. Carrot juice contains many beneficial vitamins and minerals like iron, phosphorous, potassium, manganese that support health and weight loss. Read - On a keto diet? 4 reasons why the cauliflower diet may be the best for weight loss

Watermelon contains about 82 per cent of water which fills your tummy up and lowers food cravings. The fruit is low in calories and contains vitamin C in abundance which is known to help in fat loss. Also, watermelon is considered a low energy density food which means they provide very few calories per gram of food. Low energy density foods are perfect for helping you lose belly fat [16] .

I could be wrong in your case but it’s worth mentioning that in many cases…detoxing will cause you to have a headache in the beginning. Especially if you stop other things like your caffeine intake and drastically reduce how much sugar you’re consuming. It’s because we kind of get addicted to those things and when we stop consuming them…there is a short/brief process of detox/withdrawal. Could be the case with you…or it may not. I know reducing both my sugar intake and caffeine caused migraines initially. But I was warned and so I was prepared for it.

Shark Tank isn't the only one promoting the fat burning wonder. Grammy winner and television host Christina Aguilera has credited the diet with her amazing weight loss. It's also rumored that Melissa McCarthy, Carrie Underwood and Wendy Williams have all used it to lose a significant amount of body weight. This new combination is the hottest thing in Hollywood right now, and not without reason either. This clinically proven formula has proven to turn your body into a fat burning machine! And best of all, the product is completely natural. Although we didn't doubt the results, we wanted to see them first hand!


Okay, so you won’t be dining at Waffle House this week. To make the cleanse work for you, you’ll need to make your own dinners for the next seven days, or special order off the menu of your favorite restaurant. Cleanse Dinners consist of protein and vegetables, and healthy fats, but no grains or fruits. A little harsh, but again, it’s only temporary. Metabolism decreases up to 35% during sleep, so any extra carbs in your system at bedtime are more likely to get stored as fat. Grains and fruit are the main carb sources in our diets, so I’m stripping them out at dinnertime for the next seven days.
Apple cider vinegar is a natural product. This is because it contains organic acids and enzymes. Research shows that it results in weight loss but it is gradual. But the good news is the effect is permanent. If you were looking for immediate weight loss, this may not be for you. The results are slow but steady.  Apple Cider Vinegar will balance your body's PH level. And when your PH level is balanced or alkaline, your body's metabolism will start working properly...allowing you to lose weight.
While there are some published studies on various ingredients often found in detox teas, I haven't seen any research on the teas themselves, particularly in the precise formulas they're prescribed (that research isn't required for the teas to be sold, by the way). That means that using detox teas leaves unanswered questions about if and how they work, how they should be used, how much may be too much, and possibly who shouldn't use them. If you're unsure, or are planning to start drinking them, talk to your doctor, nutritionist, or health care provider. Just be sure he or she doesn't have a vested interest in the sale of the product you're considering: If they happen to be selling or endorsing it, seek a second opinion.
Carrots contain many plant compounds such as beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lutein, lycopene, polyacetylenes, which can improve your health in many ways -- from boosting your eye health to reducing your risk of cancer, and from improving your immune system to helping you achieve your fitness goals. Read - Black tea, not black coffee, is your best weight loss drink to reduce belly fat in without dieting

If you are looking for an amazing detox tea for weight loss that you can incorporate into your daily routine, this is the one for you! The Teami 30 Day tea Detox diet plan will help you feel better from the inside out! Getting rid of the toxins that your body is holding on to will allow it  to function properly, burn the correct amount of calories, lose weight and have natural energy levels every day!
I didn’t limit my diet to a point where I am stressful but I kept the intake of healthy and homemade food high and if I got any cravings, I ate just a small amount of junk food. If I try to avoid my cravings completely then I end up craving it even more so I don’t do that. If it’s just fruits and veg diet then yea I guess you can take this detox simultaneously 🙂
Not all women are created equally — or at least as far as our bellies are concerned! Your belly type is dependent upon your musculoskeletal structure, genetics, lifestyle, diet and more. James Duigan, fitness expert and A-list celeb trainer, has narrowed down the belly types to five: spare tire, stress, pooch, mommy and bloated. Once you figure out which belly type you have, you can address the weight loss with focus and efficiency. All of the information below is based off of Duigan's research and recommendations.
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